Opportunity Solution Tree is What You Need to Ace Product Discovery

Content Writer

Athira V S

Created on:

July 1, 2024

Updated on:

July 1, 2024

13 mins read

Opportunity Solution Tree is What You Need to Ace Product Discovery

Did you know that only two out of five startups turn a profit, while others merely break even or continue to incur losses (source)? This stark reality can often be attributed to an imbalance—focusing solely on either business value or customer value without finding the middle ground. The secret to a successful business lies in perfectly aligning customer needs with business objectives, crafting products that are not only viable but deeply resonate with customers.

This is where the crucial role of product discovery comes into play, particularly through frameworks like the Opportunity Solution Tree (OST).

What is Product Discovery?

Product discovery is not just a task; it's a strategic approach that empowers teams to make informed decisions about what to build next. It involves various activities, such as engaging with customers, uncovering their core issues, and identifying solutions that deliver substantial business value.

You can delve deeper into product discovery with our comprehensive guide [here].

This article, however, focuses on a specific tool used in the product discovery process: the Opportunity Solution Tree (OST). Let's explore how OST can revolutionize product imagining and execution.

What is the Opportunity Solution Tree All About?

At its core, the Opportunity Solution Tree (OST) is a strategic framework designed to balance customer value with business value throughout the product discovery process. This tool helps teams clearly visualize and prioritize the pathways from business goals to customer satisfaction.


Developed by design thinkers at Stanford University and popularized by product discovery coach Teresa Torres in her seminal book Continuous Discovery Habits, the OST framework structures the discovery process into several key components:

  • Desired Outcome: At the tree's crown sits the desired business outcome, defining what success looks like for the project. This is the ultimate goal that guides all subsequent decisions in the discovery process.
  • Opportunity Space: Branching out from the desired outcome are opportunities, which represent customer pain points, needs, and desires. Regular interactions with customers—through calls or interviews—are crucial for identifying and understanding these opportunities deeply.
  • Solution Space: Beneath each opportunity lies potential solutions. These are various approaches that could address the identified opportunities, aiming to deliver substantial customer value. As Teresa Torres advises, it’s crucial to remain open-minded: “Instead of falling in love with our first idea, we’ll ask, ‘What else could we build?’ or ‘How else might we address this opportunity?’” This mindset encourages exploration and innovation.
  • Assumption Space: At the base of the tree, you find the assumption space where hypotheses about the solutions are tested. This stage is critical for experimenting with different solutions to ascertain which one best meets the customers' needs and the business's strategic goals.

Prerequisites for Using the Opportunity Solution Tree

Before embarking on an OST, here are certain prerequisites put forth by Teresa Torres that you must meet:

  • Understanding of the Target Customer: Have a well-defined theory of who your target customers are and the value proposition you plan to offer them.
  • Defined Desired Outcome: A clearly articulated desired outcome is essential. If you're struggling to define this, consider seeking resources or expert guidance to sharpen your focus.
  • Customer Insights: Conduct three to four story-based customer interviews to gain deep insights into your customers' needs and expectations before you begin mapping your first Opportunity Solution Tree.

By adhering to these guidelines, the Opportunity Solution Tree becomes a powerful tool for navigating the complex interplay of customer desires and business objectives, steering product development toward outcomes that are both valuable and viable.

Problem Space vs. Solution Space

One common pitfall in product discovery is an overemphasis on the solution space, often at the expense of fully understanding the customer's problems. Many teams jump prematurely into devising solutions, only to find that these solutions don’t adequately address the real needs of their customers. This misstep can steer the entire product discovery process off course.

Starting with Opportunity Space/ Problem Space

It's crucial to begin with what Teresa Torres refers to as the opportunity space, commonly known as the problem space. This terminology shift from 'problem' to 'opportunity' underscores a broader perspective: you’re not just solving problems but also fulfilling customer desires and needs. By starting here, you ensure that you're not just fixing issues but are also seizing opportunities to add value.

Torres explains,

 A solution can be a product, a feature, a service, a workflow, a process, documentation, or anything else that we offer to customers to help address a known opportunity.

This broad definition of solutions emphasizes their varied nature and their role in fulfilling opportunities identified during the discovery process.

Evolving Problem Space with Solution Space

A dynamic approach to product discovery recognizes that the problem space and solution space are interdependent. As solutions are implemented and their impact assessed, it’s vital to revisit and refine the problem space continually. This cyclical evaluation helps ensure that the solutions are effectively addressing the core issues and needs of the customers.

Conducting further research and maintaining an ongoing dialogue with users are essential steps in this iterative process. They allow the product team to uncover missed details and deeper insights into the customer experience, which might necessitate adjustments in the problem definitions or the solutions themselves.

Role of the Product Trio

The responsibility for navigating this complex landscape typically falls on the product trio—product manager, engineer, and designer. This team should lead the product discovery process, ensuring that both the problem and solution spaces are explored thoroughly and responsibly. It’s their role to ensure that the product discovery is comprehensive, accurate, and aligned with both user needs and business goals.

💡 Bonus Point: The product trio should be accountable for product discovery. Their collaborative efforts align the product’s development with strategic business outcomes and customer satisfaction.

Benefits of Using the Opportunity Solution Tree

The Opportunity Solution Tree (OST) is a powerful framework for balancing customer value with business value, fostering an environment that encourages both strategic alignment and innovation. Here’s why integrating OST into your product discovery process can be transformational:

  1. Balanced Decision-Making: OST helps teams prioritize opportunities that not only address customer needs but also propel business objectives. This strategic balance ensures that every product initiative is aligned with the company’s goals and customer expectations, preventing misalignment that can lead to project failures.
  2. Iterative Learning and Quick Adaptation: The structure of the OST promotes an iterative approach to product development. By continuously mapping and evaluating opportunities and solutions, teams can learn faster and make adjustments more swiftly, thus avoiding the pitfalls of a prolonged, inflexible project structure.
  3. Enhanced Solution Exploration: It’s human nature to stick with the first solution that comes to mind. OST challenges this bias by encouraging teams to explore a wide range of solutions, compare them, and select the most promising ones. This systematic comparison helps in uncovering innovative solutions that might otherwise be overlooked.
  4. Improved Stakeholder Communication: With its visual format, the OST facilitates clearer communication among team members and with stakeholders. This clarity helps in managing expectations and ensures that all parties have a common understanding of the project goals and progress.
  5. Building Confidence in Product Direction: As Teresa Torres points out, traditional project management often masquerades as Agile but lacks its essence—continuous improvement and flexibility. OST embodies true Agile principles by enabling teams to make informed decisions quickly, thus building confidence about what to develop next.
  6. Visual Mapping for Clarity and Collaboration: The visual nature of the OST enhances clarity and maintains a shared understanding across the team. This ongoing clarity is crucial for sustained collaboration and success, as it allows team members to keep track of why certain decisions were made and how they contribute to the overall strategy.
  7. Facilitates Retrospective Insights and Course Corrections: By documenting each decision point and the considered options, OST becomes an invaluable tool for future reference. Teams can revisit previous decisions to understand their impacts and make informed course corrections without losing context.
  8. Facilitates Better Risk Management: The OST framework helps in identifying potential risks at each stage of the opportunity and solution exploration. By understanding these risks early in the process, teams can devise strategies to mitigate them, thereby reducing the likelihood of failure and increasing the project's success rate.
  9. Encourages Cross-functional Collaboration: By involving various stakeholders, including product managers, engineers, and designers in the process, OST fosters a collaborative environment where diverse perspectives contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of both problems and solutions.
  10. Supports Customer-Centric Innovation: Through continuous engagement with the problem space and direct insights from customer interactions, OST ensures that innovation is not just technologically advanced but also deeply rooted in solving real customer problems, enhancing the relevance and adoption of the final product.
  11. Streamlines Prioritization: With its structured approach, OST helps teams prioritize features, solutions, and development efforts based on their potential impact and alignment with business goals. This structured prioritization helps in efficient resource allocation and ensures that efforts are concentrated on areas with the highest returns.
  12. Enhances Product Relevance and Market Fit: By continuously aligning product development with customer feedback and emerging market trends, OST helps ensure that the product evolves in response to real user needs and market dynamics, thereby enhancing its relevance and market fit.
  13. Promotes Sustainable Development Practices: The iterative nature of the OST encourages sustainable development practices by allowing teams to build upon small, validated learnings. This reduces waste, both in terms of resources and efforts, and promotes a lean approach to product development.
  14. Increases Transparency and Accountability: The visual and structured nature of the OST increases transparency in the decision-making process and holds team members accountable for their contributions. This accountability and transparency boost morale and commitment to the project's success.

Here’s an Opportunity Solution Tree Example

Wrapping Up

There's no denying that effective product development hinges on relentless, iterative product discovery, and the Opportunity Solution Tree is a vital navigational aid in this journey. This framework doesn't just shed light on the path but ensures every step taken is deliberate, measured, and aligned with both customer desires and business outcomes. By fostering clarity and promoting informed decision-making, the OST empowers teams to place smarter bets.

Although the OST framework isn't a foolproof shield against failure, it significantly enhances your ability to pivot and adapt swiftly, learning from each iteration. This agile approach to product discovery ensures that setbacks are learning opportunities, not roadblocks.

While we are on the topic of product discovery, let me introduce you to Zeda.io. Our product discovery tool streamlines the process by automating the collection and analysis of customer feedback, integrating seamlessly into your product discovery cycle. Zeda.io not only saves you time but also enriches your decision-making process, much like the OST, by helping you decide what to build next that aligns with your customer and business needs. 

Discover how Zeda.io can transform your product discovery process. Try it out for free today and start building products that resonate deeply with your users and succeed in the marketplace.

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