Agile Terminology: The Top 10 Terms You Need to Know

Product Management
April 26, 2023
11 Mins Read

Agile methodology has become the gold standard for software development in recent years. But what is Agile, exactly? And what are the key terms and concepts that you need to know to be successful with Agile development?

In this blog post, we'll answer those questions and more. We will give you a top-level overview of Agile methodology and the Scrum framework and introduce you to key agile terms to know, like sprints, user stories, and continuous integration. By the end of this post, you'll have a solid understanding of how Agile works and how to apply it to your development process. So let's get started!

What Is Agile Methodology

The Agile methodology has become one of the most popular approaches to software development in recent years. With its focus on iterative, incremental development and delivery, Agile has helped many organizations improve their efficiency and effectiveness.

However, because Agile is a relatively new approach, there still needs to be some clarification about what it is and how it works. This confusion can make it difficult for organizations to implement Agile effectively.

One of the biggest challenges is that Agile terminology can be confusing and overwhelming. There are dozens of different terms used in Agile, from "Scrum" to "Kanban" to "Sprint." And each term has its specific meaning and purpose.

Understanding the key agile terms used is essential for anyone who wants to implement or work with this methodology.


An Agile methodology is an iterative and incremental approach to software development that consists of short development cycles, known as sprints. Agile aims to deliver working software to users as quickly as possible, while still maintaining a high level of quality.

Agile Manifesto

The Agile Manifesto serves as a set of values and principles to guide software development using the Agile methodology, created in 2001 by a group of software developers as an alternative to the traditional, linear waterfall approach. 

The Manifesto consists of four values and twelve principles. Let us look at what they are. 

Key principles of Agile

4 Agile Values

The four key principles of Agile are:

1. Individuals and interactions over processes and tools: The focus in Agile is on individuals working together, rather than on processes or tools. This principle emphasizes the importance of communication and collaboration between team members.

2. Working software over comprehensive documentation: In Agile, the priority is on delivering working software, rather than on producing extensive documentation. This does not mean that documentation is not important, but that it should be kept to a minimum.

3. User collaboration over contract negotiation: In Agile, the user is involved throughout the development process, rather than being consulted only at the beginning or end. This allows for changes to be made if the user’s needs change during development.

4. Responding to change over following a plan: In Agile, plans are not set in stone but are meant to be adaptive; they should be changed if necessary to respond to changes in requirements or unforeseen circumstances.

The twelve principles are:

12 Agile Principles
  1. User satisfaction through continuous delivery of valuable software.
  2. Embrace changing requirements and provide continuous feedback.
  3. Deliver working software frequently, with a preference for shorter timescales.
  4. Collaborate closely with users and stakeholders throughout the project.
  5. Build projects around motivated individuals and give them the support and trust they need.
  6. Use face-to-face communication whenever possible.
  7. Working software is the primary measure of progress.
  8. Maintain a sustainable pace of work for the team.
  9. Focus on technical excellence and good design.
  10. Simplicity is essential.
  11. Self-organizing teams make the best use of the individual's talents.
  12. Regular reflection and adaptation to improve teamwork and effectiveness.


Scrum is a framework for Agile software development. It is characterized by short development cycles, called Sprints, which are typically two weeks long. In each Sprint, a cross-functional team works to complete a set of deliverables.

Roles and responsibilities in Scrum

Scrum is a framework that emphasizes collaboration, teamwork, and iterative progress in software development. The Scrum framework includes three roles: the Product Owner, the Scrum Master, and the Development Team.

The Product Owner is responsible for defining and prioritizing the product backlog, representing the user's needs and wants, and ensuring the team delivers value to the business.

The Scrum Master is responsible for facilitating the Scrum process, removing obstacles, and coaching the team on how to use Scrum effectively.

The Development Team is responsible for delivering a working product increment each sprint, self-organizing to determine how best to achieve the sprint goal, and continuously improving their process.

Advantages and disadvantages of Scrum

Scrum has several advantages, including its flexibility, ability to adapt to changing requirements, and focus on delivering business value. It also promotes collaboration, transparency, and continuous improvement.

However, Scrum also has some disadvantages. It may be challenging to implement in organizations that are resistant to change or have a command-and-control management style. The framework requires a high level of commitment and involvement from all team members, and it may be challenging to manage team members who are not co-located.

Additionally, the emphasis on delivering a working product increment each sprint may lead to technical debt if the team focuses solely on delivering functionality without considering the underlying architecture and design of the system.


A Sprint is a time-boxed iteration of work in Agile development, typically lasting two weeks. During a Sprint, a Scrum team works to complete a set amount of work from the product backlog, which is prioritized by the product owner.

The Sprint starts with a sprint planning meeting, where the team sets goals for the iteration based on the product backlog items. The team then works together to complete the sprint goals within the two-week timeframe. At the end of the Sprint, the team holds a sprint review and retrospective to assess their progress and identify areas for improvement.

How Sprints work in Scrum

Sprints are an essential part of Scrum, as they provide a framework for delivering value incrementally. Each Sprint begins with sprint planning, where the team commits to completing a certain amount of work from the product backlog. The team then works together over two weeks to complete those commitments. At the end of each Sprint, the team holds a retrospective to identify what went well and what could be improved.

Benefits of Sprints for Agile development

Sprints offer many benefits for Agile development teams, as they provide structure and allow teams to deliver value incrementally. Sprints also help teams to focus on specific goals and objectives and ensure that everyone is working towards the same goal. In addition, Sprints allow teams to get feedback early and often from stakeholders, which helps to improve the quality of the final product.

Product Backlog

The Product Backlog is a prioritized list of all the work that needs to be done on a project. It includes everything from small tasks to large features, and it is constantly evolving as new ideas are generated and priorities change. The Product Backlog is owned by the product owner and is used by the development team to plan and track progress.

Importance of prioritization in Agile development

Prioritization is important in Agile development because it helps ensure that the most important work is always being worked on first. By keeping the Product Backlog up-to-date and prioritized, the development team can make sure they are always making progress on the most important items.

How to create and manage a Product Backlog

The product owner is responsible for creating and maintaining the Product Backlog, but the whole development team should be involved in brainstorming items for it. To create a Product Backlog, start by brainstorming all of the potential work that could be done on the project. Then, prioritize these items using criteria such as importance, effort required, business value, etc.

Once you have a prioritized list, start adding more detail to each item, such as estimated time to completion and acceptance criteria. As work is completed, remove items from the bottom of the backlog so that it always represents what still needs to be done.

User Story

User Stories are one of the key aspects of Agile development. They are short, simple descriptions of a feature told from the perspective of the user. User Stories help to capture the requirements for a feature in a way that is easy to understand and can be used to discuss, estimate, and prioritize work.

User Stories should be written using the following template: As a < type of user >, I want < some goal > so that < some reason >. For example: As a user, I want to be able to search for products so that I can find what I'm looking for quickly and easily.

Importance of User Stories in Agile development

User Stories are important because they help to ensure that the features being developed are aligned with the needs of the users. They also provide a common language that can be used by developers, product owners, and stakeholders to discuss requirements. User Stories can be used to estimate the effort required for a feature, and they can be prioritized based on importance or business value.

How to create and manage User Stories

There are a few different ways to create User Stories. One method is called INVEST, which stands for Independent, Negotiable, Valuable, Estimable, Small, and Testable. This ensures that each User Story meets certain criteria before it is added to the backlog.

Once you have created your User Stories, it is important to manage them effectively. This includes adding them to your project management tool (such as Jira), assigning them to sprints or iterations, and tracking their progress.

Daily Stand-up

A daily stand-up is a short, time-boxed meeting that all members of the development team attend. The purpose of the daily stand-up is to ensure that everyone is on the same page and knows what needs to be done that day.

The format of the daily stand-up is simple: each member of the team answers three questions:

  1. What did you do yesterday?
  2. What will you do today?
  3. Are there any impediments in your way?

By answering these questions, everyone on the team knows what everyone else is doing and can offer help if needed. Additionally, any impediments that are blocking progress can be brought to light and addressed quickly.

Benefits of Daily Stand-ups for Agile Development

There are several benefits of using daily stand-ups in an agile development process:

First, they improve communication among team members. By sharing what they’re working on each day, team members can better understand how their work fits into the bigger picture and can offer help to others when needed.

Second, they help to identify potential problems early on. If someone is having difficulty with their task or there is an impediment in their way, it can be brought up at the daily stand-up so that the whole team can help address the issue.

Finally, they keep the project moving forward. By ensuring that everyone knows what needs to be done each day, daily stand-ups help keep the project on track and prevent stagnation.

How to Conduct Effective Daily Stand-ups

There are a few things to keep in mind when conducting daily stand-ups:

First, make sure that the meeting is time-boxed. Daily stand-ups should only last for 15 minutes or less. This ensures that they don’t drag on and that everyone can get back to work quickly. Second, make sure that everyone attends and participates. Everyone on the team must be present and share what they’re working on.

Finally, make sure that the meeting is focused on the three questions. Once everyone has answered the three questions, the meeting should be over so that everyone can get back to work.


Kanban is a Lean manufacturing process that helps businesses optimize their production flow by visualizing work progress and limiting work in progress. The Kanban system was developed by Taiichi Ohno, an industrial engineer at Toyota, in the 1950s.

The word "Kanban" is Japanese for "sign" or "card." In the Kanban system, each stage of production is represented by a card. Work moves from one stage to the next as each task is completed. This visualization makes it easy to see where bottlenecks are occurring and where improvements can be made.

There are three main principles of Kanban:

Visualize your work: This means creating a Kanban board that everyone can see. This board should contain all of the tasks that need to be completed, as well as who is responsible for each task.

Limit work in progress: This means setting limits on how much work can be done at each stage of production. This ensures that tasks are not started until they can be completed, which prevents bottlenecks from forming.

Continuously improve: This means constantly looking for ways to improve your process. This could involve things like reducing the time it takes to complete a task, or increasing the quality of your output.

Advantages and disadvantages of using Kanban in Agile

There are several advantages of using Kanban in Agile development, including:

Improved Communication

 Kanban provides a visual representation of the workflow, which makes it easy for everyone to see what needs to be done and who is responsible for each task. This can help to improve communication between team members.

Increased efficiency

By limiting work in progress, Kanban can help to ensure that tasks are not started until they can be completed. This can lead to increased efficiency and a reduction in wasted time and resources.

Continuous improvement

The continuous improvement principle of Kanban encourages teams to constantly look for ways to improve their process. This could lead to more efficient and effective ways of working.

There are also some disadvantages of using Kanban in Agile development, including:

Potential for overuse

If not used correctly, Kanban can lead to teams becoming bogged down in details and losing sight of the big picture. It is important to use Kanban as a tool to supplement Agile methodology, rather than replace it.

Need for discipline

For Kanban to be effective, team members need to be disciplined about updating the board and limiting work in progress. This can be difficult to achieve if team members are not buy-in into the system.

Continuous Integration

Continuous Integration is a software development practice in which developers regularly merge their code changes into a shared repository, typically multiple times per day. By integrating early and often, developers can avoid the "integration hell" that can happen when large-scale changes are left to the end of a project.

Benefits of Continuous Integration for Agile development

There are many benefits of using Continuous Integration in an Agile development process. By integrating regularly, developers can find and fix errors quickly, before they have a chance to become bigger problems. Additionally, Continuous Integration can help improve communication and collaboration among team members, as everyone is working with the same up-to-date code base.

How to implement Continuous Integration in your development process

There are several steps you can take to start using Continuous Integration in your development process. First, you need to choose a source control management system (SCM) like Git or Subversion. Next, you need to set up a server that will host your code repository and run your build scripts. Finally, you need to configure your build script to run automatically whenever code is pushed into the repository.


A retrospective is a meeting that is held at the end of each sprint in order to discuss what went well, what could have gone better, and what actions should be taken in order to improve things for the next sprint.

Importance of Retrospectives in Agile development

Retrospectives are important because they provide an opportunity for the team to reflect on their work and identify areas of improvement. They also help to build trust and transparency within the team, as well as foster a culture of continuous learning and improvement.

How to conduct effective Retrospectives

There are a few key things to keep in mind when conducting retrospectives:

1. Make sure everyone has a chance to voice their opinion. This can be done by setting up a rotation schedule so that everyone gets a turn to speak, or by using voting methods such as dot voting.

2. Be open-minded and objective in your discussions. It’s important to remember that everyone is working towards the same goal, so try not to get too caught up in individual differences.

3. Focus on the future. Rather than dwelling on past mistakes, use retrospectives as an opportunity to identify ways that you can improve things for the next sprint.


The Agile methodology has become increasingly popular in recent years, as it offers a number of advantages over traditional approaches to software development. However, before you can start using Agile in your projects, it's important to understand the key concepts and terms associated with this methodology.

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Suggested Read: The Ultimate Guide to Agile Product Development Process


Athira V S
Content Writer
​​As a lover of words and a teller of tales, I use my writing skills to create content that engages, entertains, and enlightens business enthusiasts far and wide.
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